- The Two Way Web
Most of us have no idea what life was really like prior to the invention of electricity, the light bulb, the telephone, etc. Though most of us that are in our mid 30’s and older have all heard the stories from parents and grandparents about how life was ‘way back when’. When there were no TV’s, and you could go to the movies, buy popcorn, 2 drinks, 10 gallon of gas, a pack of cigarettes, a bag of candy, a Ford Galaxy and go to the Dr. and get a new liver for $1.25.
Of course those stories were hard to believe! How the heck did they have time to go to the movies after working 162 hours per week for 43 cents?
However, even we in our 30’s have a hard time convincing our kids how much fun we had playing “Pong” all day, or how we rode in cars that wasn’t even equipped with seatbelts, much less air conditioning.
It is just as hard to convince them how we never saw a real life cell phone till we were married, and even then it was too big to fit in your pocket. Even with the extendable antenna pushed all the way down!! Yep, the kids look at you like you’re from Mars huh?
Well think how crazy our kids’ kids are going to look at them when they tell stories of life before RSS feeds, feed readers and media aggregators. Truth be told, most of us have no clue what the heck they are now! So what do we say when asked, “What is RSS”?
There was a time, not so long ago it seems, that the only way, or at least the most effective way, to keep track of all your favorite websites, as well as keep up with current activities taken place within them, was to “bookmark” the page, and each day sit at your computer and manually click on each individual site to view new post from weblogs and/or headlines from news publications.
Although now it seems as though this was a mind numbing practice, at the time we knew of no better way so essentially it didn’t feel as though that great of a hassle and most web surfers were content with the bookmarking process. Why?
Because like our parents and grandparents felt about electricity, TV’s and microwave ovens, we that were just a short time ago were bookmarking our favorite sites so we could keep up with updates and current events, we did not know any better. We can’t possibly desperately want, or even miss what we have never heard of, seen, or used before.
However, just as electricity, light bulbs, TV’s, cell phones and PS3’s, once exposed to their capabilities, we can never go back and having to do so is worse than having to pay a “whole nickel” for a gallon of milk!
Just as Ben Franklin showed the world that indeed we could harness electricity, Thomas Edison used it to light up a room, in which Bell sat while making the telephone, that quite some years later was used to connect our Macintosh computers to the world wide web, that Jobs and Gates took to whole new levels, just so we could learn about “weblogs”, then “podcasting”, from the same man that showed us that we no longer had to bookmark our favorites, just to keep up with the news we like, when all we had to do was to subscribe to them via “RSS Feeds”……..Dave Winer.
What Is RSS?
Throughout a typical day of browsing over internet websites, it is an almost certainty that at some point you will come across a row of optional methods of following the particular site that you are currently visiting.
Of these options available, one may be a small “RSS”, or even “RSS Feed” button. The purpose of the RSS is to allow users to subscribe to continuous updating formats in which each time a new blog entry, news update, or an audio or video post is published, the subscriber will receive an immediate formatted update as well.
Publishers of content greatly value the benefits they receive from the RSS’ XML file format. Because the RSS feeds are viewed by several different browsers all at once, any content published, then formatted through the RSS, becomes automatically syndicated material. In fact, users and publishers alike commonly call the RSS “Really Simple Syndication”.
However, the actual name associated with RSS is “Rich Site Summary”. The name was given by Dan Libby of Netscape after his revamping of the initial attempt by the company to create the same type of service for its subscribers in 1999 called “RDF” Site Summary.
Libby had tried to successfully duplicate the technology and formats created by Winer when launching RDF. Unfortunately, although Winer’s 1997 launch of the similar feature of syndication through his “Scripting News” had not gone as hoped, mainly due to Netscape’s prior success and name recognition, still Winer had an ace, or actually, an “XML”, up his sleeve.
The New RSS:
When Netscape was purchased by AOL, Winer was all alone on the RSS train. After reworking it several times over, only to improve the format for subscribers’ benefits, not his, Winer developed RSS to carry audio and video so we could use podcasting and watch videos updated by our favorites as well.
The things that cause RSS to be effective, and essentially do the unique things that RSS feeds actually do each and every time a subscriber to a weblog, media outlet, or simply their favorite site clicks that funky looking “RSS” feed icon, are called aggregators.
Aggregators were the way Winer could perform the internet syndicating wizardry that made him, and RSS, so famous and hard to live without. To really understand how RSS works behind the scenes, one must understand aggregators as well.
Whenever an individual surfing the web locates a site in which they may choose to become a follower of the material included upon this particular site, they have the option of doing so by selecting on the “RSS” icon.
Once the person clicks on the button they are redirected to a subscription page that allows them to secure their membership through special software designed in order for the RSS feed to be formatted and read.
The software is referred to as a “Feed reader” or “Aggregator”. It is this software that essentially pushes (or “pulls” as most RSS users refer to the process used by the aggregators) all the published content into a simple, one location viewing area that allows the subscriber the ability to avoid having to go from site to site reviewing recent post, news stories or blog entries, and lets them utilize the aggregator to see everything in one location.
The aggregators, or feed reader, are the heart and soul of the RSS feed retrieval process. Because of the software’s ability to search each individually selected site according to pre-selected time intervals chosen by the subscriber, scan for newly published content, and once new content is found, pulls it into the subscriber’s web browser for later viewing.
Who knows how long it would have been before our generation of “70’s babies” would have found a better way to view and stay updated to our favorite web sites and weblogs, to be honest, had it not been for Dave Winer and his persistence in showing us an easier way, even our grandkids may have had to suffer through a day of sifting through their favorite sites, while being forced to perform hideous and draconian methods of torture, such as clicking on those mid-evil “bookmarks”.
A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. A web browser can also be defined as an application software or program designed to enable users to access, retrieve and view documents and other resources on the Internet.
Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems. The major web browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari.
The first web browser was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. It was called WorldWideWeb (no spaces) and was later renamed Nexus.
In 1993, browser software was further innovated by Marc Andreessen with the release of Mosaic (later Netscape), “the world’s first popular browser”, which made the World Wide Web system easy to use and more accessible to the average person. Andreesen’s browser
The mass media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. Broadcast media (also known as electronic media) transmit their information electronically and comprise television, radio, film, movies, CDs, DVDs, and other devices such as cameras and video consoles. Alternatively, print media use a physical object as a means of sending their information, such as a newspaper, magazines, comics, books, brochures, newsletters, leaflets, and pamphlets. The organizations that control these technologies, such as television stations or publishing companies, are also known as the mass media. Internet media is able to achieve mass media status in its own right, due to the many mass media services it provides, such as email, websites, blogging, Internet and television. For this reason, many mass media outlets have a presence on the web, by such things as having TV ads that link to a website, or having games in their sites to entice gamers to visit their website. In this way, they can utilise the easy accessibility that the Internet has, and the outreach that Internet affords, as information can easily be broadcast to many different regions of
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known effects, such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical current. In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves.
In electricity, charges produce electromagnetic fields which act on other charges. Electricity occurs due to several types of physics:
In electrical engineering, electricity is used for:
Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though advances in the science were not made until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity however remained few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society. Electricity’s extraordinary versatility as a means of providing energy means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation.
This role indicates that a URI or URI template gives the main page for a topic (on a particular site). In many cases this will be the only kind of URI that is available.
Biltmore House is a Châteauesque-styled mansion in Asheville, North Carolina, built by George Washington Vanderbilt II between 1889 and 1895. It is the largest privately owned home in the United States, at 175,000 square feet (16,300 m) and featuring 250 rooms. Still owned by one of Vanderbilt’s descendants, it stands today as one of the most prominent remaining examples of the Gilded Age, and of significant gardens in the jardin à la française and English Landscape garden styles in the United States. In 2007, it was ranked eighth in America’s Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.
In the 1880s, at the height of the Gilded Age, George Washington Vanderbilt, youngest son of William Henry Vanderbilt, began to make regular visits with his mother, Maria Louisa Kissam Vanderbilt (1821–1896), to the Asheville, North Carolina, area. He loved the scenery and climate so much that he decided to create his own summer estate in the area, which he called his “little mountain escape,” just as his older brothers and sisters had built opulent summer houses in places such as Newport, Rhode Island, and Hyde Park, New York.
Vanderbilt’s idea was to replicate the working
The following is a comparison of notable RSS feed aggregators. Often e-mail programs and web browsers have the ability to display RSS feeds. They are listed here, too.
Many BitTorrent clients support RSS feeds for broadcatching (see Comparison of BitTorrent clients).
Netscape Messenger 9 is a fork of Mozilla Thunderbird and has the same features.
Web browsers and Internet suites have for browser plugin a N/A, because they don’t need it.
A site-specific browser (SSB) is a software application that is dedicated to accessing pages from a single source (site) on a computer network such as the Internet or a private intranet. SSBs typically simplify the more complex functions of a web browser by excluding the menus, toolbars and browser chrome associated with functions that are external to the workings of a single site. These applications can be started by using mostly a desktop icon using the favicon.
Site-specific browsers are often implemented through the use of existing application frameworks such as Gecko, WebKit, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (the underlying layout engines, specifically Trident and JScript) and Opera’s Presto. SSBs built upon these frameworks allow web applications and social networking tools to start with desktop icons launching in a manner similar to standard non-browser applications. Some technologies, including Adobe’s AIR and JavaFX use specialized development kits that can create cross-platform SSBs. Since version 6.0, the Curl platform has offered detached applets and the EmbeddedBrowserGraphic class which can be used as an SSB on the desktop.
An early example of an SSB was MacDICT, a Mac
MyBlogLog was a social network for the blogger community that was based in part on interactions facilitated by a popular web widget that many members install on their blog. Bloggers signed up for free accounts on MyBlogLog and can initiate a blog community for one or more blogs they authored. Other registered members could subscribe to these communities, effectively bookmarking them for future reading and sharing them with their own contacts. Bloggers could then display widgets on their sites which show MyBlogLog online community members who had recently visited their page. These widgets also contained links to visiting members’ community pages, and are one way in which users connected with one another. All members could see certain basic information about how many people visit their blog, what links they clicked and where they come from. Members could also view more extensive information about traffic on their site for a monthly fee.
MyBlogLog communities revolved around an individual blog registered by that blog’s author. These communities had anywhere from a few to thousands of members. Communities that are particularly popular, had the most members or that are brand new were
A website, also written as Web site, web site, or simply site, is a set of related web pages containing content such as text, images, video, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web.
A webpage is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). A webpage may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Webpages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the webpage content. The user’s application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.
The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the web address. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although hyperlinking between
Netscape Communications (formerly known as Netscape Communications Corporation and commonly known as Netscape) is a US computer services company, best known for Netscape Navigator, its web browser. When it was an independent company, its headquarters were in Mountain View, California.
Netscape’s web browser was once dominant in terms of usage share, but lost most of that share to Internet Explorer during the first browser war. The usage share of Netscape had fallen from over 90-percent in the mid 1990s to less than one-percent by the end of 2006.
Netscape stock traded from 1995 until 1999 when it was acquired by AOL in a pooling-of-interests transaction ultimately worth US$10 billion. Shortly before its acquisition by AOL, Netscape released the source code for its browser and created the Mozilla Organization to coordinate future development of its product. The Mozilla Organization rewrote the entire browser’s source code based on the Gecko rendering
Franklin is a city in, and county seat of, Williamson County, Tennessee, United States. It is a southern suburb of Nashville. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a total population of 62,487.
The City of Franklin was founded October 26, 1799 by Abram Maury, Jr. (1766–1825), who was also a State Senator and is buried with his family in Founders Pointe. Maury named the town after Benjamin Franklin, a close friend of Dr. Hugh Williamson, a member of the Continental Congress after whom Williamson County was named.
Ewen Cameron built the first house in the town of Franklin. Cameron was born February 23, 1768 in Balgalkan, Ferintosh, Scotland. He emigrated to Virginia in 1785 and from there came to Tennessee. Cameron died February 28, 1846, having lived forty-eight years in the same log house. He and his second wife, Mary, are buried in the old City Cemetery. His descendants have lived in Franklin continuously since 1798 when his son Duncan was born.
The Battle of Franklin was fought in the city on November 30, 1864, resulting in almost 10,000 casualties (killed, wounded, captured and missing) and turning forty-four buildings into field hospitals.
As of the census of 2010, there were
A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station.
In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.
The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchelland Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing around 2.2 pounds (1 kg). In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to be commercially available. From 1990 to 2011, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 6 billion, penetrating about 87% of the global population and reaching the bottom of the
Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimetre, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz. This broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter waves), and various sources use different boundaries. In all cases, microwave includes the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum, with RF engineering often putting the lower boundary at 1 GHz (30 cm), and the upper around 100 GHz (3 mm).
Apparatus and techniques may be described qualitatively as “microwave” when the wavelengths of signals are roughly the same as the dimensions of the equipment, so that lumped-element circuit theory is inaccurate. As a consequence, practical microwave technique tends to move away from the discrete resistors, capacitors, and inductors used with lower-frequency radio waves. Instead, distributed circuit elements and transmission-line theory are more useful methods for design and analysis. Open-wire and coaxial transmission lines give way to waveguides and stripline, and lumped-element tuned circuits are replaced by cavity resonators or resonant lines. Effects of reflection, polarization,
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all gratis open standards.
The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services.
Many application programming interfaces (APIs) have been developed for software developers to use to process XML data, and several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages.
As of 2009, hundreds of XML-based languages have been developed, including RSS, Atom, SOAP, and XHTML. XML-based formats have become the default for many office-productivity tools, including Microsoft Office (Office Open XML), OpenOffice.org and LibreOffice (OpenDocument), and Apple’s iWork. XML has also been employed as the base language for communication
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for representing information in the Web.
RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax defines an abstract syntax on which RDF is based, and which serves to link its concrete syntax to its formal semantics. It also includes discussion of design goals, key concepts, datatyping, character normalization and handling of URI references.Read more about RDF on freebase.com
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$), also referred to as the U.S. dollar or American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America and its overseas territories. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents.
The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is one of the world’s dominant reserve currencies. Several countries use it as their official currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. It is also used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories, the British Virgin Islands and the Turks and Caicos islands.
The Constitution of the United States of America provides that the United States Congress shall have the power “To coin Money”. Laws implementing this power are currently codified in Section 5112 of Title 31 of the United States Code. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars shall be issued. Those coins are both designated in Section 5112 as “legal tender” in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar. The pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the
The Macintosh (/ˈmækɨntɒʃ/ MAK-in-tosh), or Mac, is a series of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple Inc.’s then-chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface. The company continued to have success through the second half of the 1980s, primarily because the sales of the Apple II series remained strong even after the introduction of the Macintosh, only to see it dissipate in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted toward the “Wintel” platform: IBM PC compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows.
In 1998, Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the iMac all-in-one. This proved to be a sales success and saw the Macintosh brand revitalized. Current Mac systems are mainly targeted at the home, education, and creative professional markets. These include the descendants of the original iMac, the entry-level Mac mini desktop model, the Mac Pro tower graphics workstation, and the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro laptops. The
Dave Winer (born May 2, 1955 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American software developer, entrepreneur and writer in New York City. Winer is noted for his contributions to outliners, scripting, content management, and web services, as well as blogging and podcasting. He is the founder of the software companies Living Videotext and Userland Software, a former contributing editor for the Web magazine HotWired, the author of the Scripting News weblog, a former research fellow at Harvard Law School, and current visiting scholar at New York University’s Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute.
Winer was born on May 2, 1955, in Brooklyn, New York City, the son of Eve Winer, Ph.D., a school psychologist, and Leon Winer, Ph.D., a former professor of the Columbia University Graduate School of Business who died October 3, 2009. Winer is also the grandnephew of German novelist Arno Schmidt and a relative of Hedy Lamarr. He graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1972. Winer received a BA in Mathematics from Tulane University in New Orleans in 1976. In 1978 he received an MS in Computer Science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
In 1979 Dave Winer became an employee of
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed “The Wizard of Menlo Park” by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.
Edison is the fourth most prolific inventor in history, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. He is credited with numerous inventions that contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications. These included a stock ticker, a mechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electrical power, recorded music and motion pictures.
His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a telegraph operator. Edison developed a system of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories
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